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In this case, how flat mirrors behave. Then I had to find a concise way to express the simulation of a curved mirror by a collection of flat ones. Then I had to find a way to say this in a language of spoons, not mirrors, anticipating and thwarting every imaginable misreading. You can understand how a curved mirror behaves by thinking of it as built up out of lots of little flat mirrors.
So suppose the enormous spoon is a wooden one, made to reflect by gluing a lot of little flat mirrors to both its surfaces, like mosaic tiles on the inside and outside of a dome. As you lower your eyes toward the lower part of the bowl, the little mirrors that you see will tilt upwards, so you see in them the reflection of the upper part of your face.
But as you raise your eyes toward the upper part of the bowl, the little mirrors that you see will tilt downwards, so you see in them the reflection of the lower part of your face. In other words you see yourself upside down.
So reflected in that side, you look right-side up. The agony of producing it was similar to what I endured trying to produce the disquisitions on relativistic and quantum physics in the earlier parts of this lecture.
Only then do you really see how your work fits into or, if you are lucky, changes the character of the tradition out of which it grew.
All this requires time. You cannot go through such a ruminative process if you feel the urgent need to get your work out ahead of your competitors. At my back I rarely hear the competition getting near. I was talking to a younger colleague about this just a few weeks ago. He was worried that his most interesting work was peripheral to what most people were doing, and therefore failed to arouse their interest.
This may be an example of what Jonathan Monroe had in mind when he asked us whether we considered our writing to be at odds with our discipline.
There have also been times when my writing of physics has quite directly troubled the guardians of my discipline. On the form acknowledging receipt of the manuscript was added in handwriting: The title is characterized as "catchy.
What is disturbing is its invocation of raw human emotion. Titles of physics papers rarely address the feelings their contents ought to inspire in the reader. The dominant tradition in late 20th century scientific prose has been to produce something suitable for direct transmission from one computer to another, from which any trace of human origin has been purged, and in which any suggestion of the humanity of the author or the reader would be in bad taste.
Furthermore, the complaint that the title is uninformative is a lame excuse. The acceptable one leaves open the question of whether we stopped at 46, because 45 is already quite large enough, because it just got too hard to press the frontier further at that point, or because 46 is truly exceptional.
I decided not to respond to this provocation until the paper had been reviewed. Neither referee even mentioned the title, but in due course I received from the editors an unusual letter of acceptance: We find that your title is catchy, but not informative. To my surprise and to their credit, they gave up at that point. It seems to be prevalent in the engineering literature, as in Beware of pitfalls when applying variable-frequency drives. Beware of organic impurities in steam-power systems.
Beware the wiles of eddy-current testing for diffused metal coatings. The only one I could find that sounded like physics is "Beware of surface tension. While Roald has worked with a needle, my preferred instrument has been the sledge hammer.
The editors at Physical Review Letters had already learned to be suspicious of me because several years earlier I had used their journal triumphantly to conclude a long-running campaign to see if I could make the silly word "boojum" an internationally accepted technical term. To show you what I had to put up with in the early stages of that process, here is a letter a supportive colleague received from the editor of the Journal of Low Temperature Physics: As you will see, he considers that the paper should be published provided the word "Boojum" be replaced with a suitable scientific word or phrase in the title, abstract, and text.
I too as General Editor concur unreservedly in this requirement. If you are willing to make such changes, we shall be happy to publish the paper. There are two striking trophies of my victory.
The first is the Russian budzhum, which made its public debut in both the nominative plural budzhumi , the prepositional singular budzhumom and the spectacular instrumental plural budzhumami. My traces had entirely vanished. Boojums and the shapes of domains in monolayer films.
Domain morphology in a two-dimensional anisotropic mesophase: Cusps and boojum textures in a Langmuir monolayer. As these make clear, my victory was an empty one. The boojums have not loosened up the prose; on the contrary, the prose has tightened up the boojums.
I have resisted for most of my professional life the tradition of stodginess in contemporary scientific prose. It began with my first paper in Physical Review, which at that time had a rule against the first person singular. You could not say "I" in Physical Review. The editorial "we" was mandatory. Since most physics papers have multiple authors the issue did not often arise, but I very much like to write papers by myself. It is not just pompous to make "we" the authorial voice in a single author paper.
This lasted for a year or two. Then they made a rule that single-author papers must use the first person singular. So I had to go through the same thing all over again. Once again they saw the point, but they continue to exhibit a peculiar nervousness about any sign of humanity in the authorial voice.
I once sent them a paper in which I referred to "nature herself". On the proofs "herself" had been removed. Was this a new feminist sensitivity in the editorial office? No, there was an explanation: I had cited a "charming" mathematical monograph both because I felt the author deserved the praise and, more importantly, to indicate to my readers that unlike most such documents, this one was actually readable.
A special problem for the writing of physics is created by the predominance of multi-author papers. Research is usually a collaborative process and writing has, inevitably, become highly collaborative. Single-author papers are now rather rare, and papers can be seen whose list of authors constitutes a quarter of the entire text. It is hard to discern an authorial voice in such papers. This is a tough milieu for one who views the writing as a major component of the research.
I once remarked in a Physics Today column that "my writing is a process that does not converge; I cannot read a page of my own prose without wanting to improve it.
Therefore when I read proofs I ignore the manuscript except to check purely technical points. Proofreading offers one more shot at elusive perfection. He was horrified when I told him that I fussed with them even more.
How can you do that when you collaborate? My solution has been to avoid collaboration. This is easier for a theorist than an experimentalist. With one important exception, my collaborators over the years have been almost exclusively my own graduate students. They, of course, produce the first draft. For some years I would then return a second draft which bore little resemblance to what I had been handed. I recognized the ghastly pedagogy in this procedure, but indulged myself with the thought that they would surely learn much from the contrast between the two versions, and this would show up in the next first draft of the next joint project.
And indeed, to some extent this worked. I was brought up short by a student who, I discovered with mixed emotions, took writing as seriously as I did. She was enraged by my second draft. But that paper is the only one on which my name appears, that feels like I had nothing to do with it, even though I remember participating actively in the analysis. The striking exception to my inability to write collaboratively is my eight-year collaboration with Neil Ashcroft on our page book on solid state physics.
We have very different prose styles. I think the reason this worked was that Neil knows solid state physics much better than I do. So he would produce the first drafts. Characteristically, I would not understand them. So I would try to make sense of what he was saying, and then produce my typical kind of irritating second draft. Neil, however, would now have to correct all my mistakes in a massively rewritten third draft.
I would then have to root out any new obscurities he had introduced in a fourth draft. By this kind of tennis-playing, we would go through five or six drafts, and emerge with something that was clear, correct, and sounded like a human voice. That voice, however, was neither of ours. Let me call your attention to another peculiarity about writing physics, pertinent to this very lecture. The tradition of talking informally is so strong that most physicists are shocked when they discover that people in other disciplines read their talks from a prepared text.
Only sissies read their talks. Since the invention of the overhead projector an exception to this rule has gradually emerged. With this compromise you get neither the precision of the written language, nor the spontaneity of informal speech.
Lecturing at my alma mater makes me nervous. It has to be read. But I worry that people will be so scandalized by this bizarre behavior that they will be unable to listen to what I say. Having traveled back to my college days, let me conclude as I began, back in high school. I took a test that was supposed to tell me what to do with my life.
I think it was called the Kudor Preference Test. You were asked questions like "Would you rather spend an hour reading to an invalid or taking apart a clock? They told me afterwards that the test showed that I had two great interests: So, they said, I should aim to become the editor of a science journal.
Implicit in this recommendation is the distinction, remarked on earlier in this series by Jonathan Culler, between writing and writing up. Writing was done in editorial offices; in laboratories you only wrote up.
But writing physics is different from both writing up physics, and the editorial refinement of written-up physics. While there has to be something there before the writing begins, that something only acquires its character and shape through writing. My transformation of the spoon into a dome with mosaics is clearly not writing up physics.
Physics Help On Writing A Paper. applied physics ieee: Topics by nbsp; Note: This page contains sample records for the topic applied physics ieee from. While these samples are representative of .
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