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Literature review on purchase decision

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❶Hedonism or pleasure purchases refer to the consumption of popular entertainment. It does so by acknowledging the conflict consumers can face between utilitarian reinforcement and informational reinforcement.

purchase decision literature review




This kind of buying behaviours demand consumer to highly involve within the process. In case of high involvement, consumers distinguish salient differences among the competing brands Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong, This phenomenon is particularly essential for Dixons consumers to highly involve, and engage in extensive research about the product category and make a good purchase decision about the firm own manufacturing products, in case they invent a new technology electronics products or audio-video equipment that is too expensive.

This type of buying behaviour also has high consumer involvement. In terms of expensive and infrequent purchase, consumer also undergoes reducing dissonancy behaviour. It is extremely difficult for consumers to differential among brands in this type of buying behaviours Kotler, Wong, Saunders, Armstrong, Contrariwise, in this type of buying behaviour consumers have lesser levels of involvements.

It implies that consumer do not have to bother to retrieved information about the available products and brands in the market. So therefore, there are no potential differences between the different brands. Whether this factor will have damaging effects on Dixons will be analyse at the findings and analysis chapter below. However, some believed that if the consumer persistently purchasing the same product repeatedly, it becomes habit and their mindsets and perceptions changes overtime about the brand and the provider Cohen and Manion, This conception will portray the consumer to have unconscientiously developed a brand loyalty to that particular brand due to the consumer regular buying habits Cohen and Manion, This type of consumer level of involvement is low.

However consumer may became critical in terms of brand differences. Additionally, consumer may easily switch from PCWorld to Currys i. The consumers can now have beliefs about the various brands and choose a brand without much evaluation. But they evaluate that product at the time of purchase. In this high technology world, consumer switches their brands not because of dissatisfaction but because of that enormous trend of technological equipment Aaker, The concept of decision making perceived by buying behaviour as a problem-solving activity that consumer undergo to solve different problems.

Consumer decisions making can sometimes be confusing and relate to many ideas and beliefs. This emphasises a trade-off circumstances Lunn et al, On the other hand, the value emerges partly from what consumers perceive they are receiving and partly from what consumers perceived they are giving.

These tool drivers influence the perception of customer in term of the decision making. This phenomenon allowed consumer to judge the quality and multiplicity of different product when deciding what to purchase and how many.

Hansen opined that, perhaps it might be extremely hard for consumers to evaluate the essence of different in quality aspects in relation to each other and in relation to requirement or intention to consumer the products.

A number of cues are studied in many researches. As mentioned in the cue utilisation theory, consumers try decrease risk by applying cues e. Thus, the reliance on one or one or more cues is a risk-reduction strategy Hansen, Dawar and Parker depicted that cues assist consumers to determining the quality of the product when there is a need to reduce the perceived risk of purchase and when consumer involvement is low. Consumer involvement also influences to emotion perspective and product evaluations.

Peter et al debated that if product involvement is high, people may experience stronger affective reaction such as emotions and stronger feelings. There are many other causes that have tremendous effect on consumer decision making process, such as perceptions and attitudes. Perceptions take consumers to the process of selecting, organising, and interpreting stimuli to a meaningful and coherent picture of the world Schiffman and Kanuk Because there are so many marketing stimuli, consumers need to limit the information of product that will have an effect on the decision making.

On perception process, customers express their own final perception using their consuming behaviour. Without attitude, an alternative brand may be purchased Fazio et al. Good attitude towards the product might move to a purchase decision.

Attitude is connected to behavioural intention and buying forecast Fishbein, Attitude is what we can feel about a concept that could be a person, a brand, a category, an ideology or other things we can think about and applying feeling into East, Many writers agree that attitude is an evaluation.

Attitude can be the most important factor in consumer decision process because they theoretically conclude that a consumer evaluation of an object product, brand or company represent positive or negative feeling and behavioural towards the object Belch and Belch, Attitude influences each stage of the buying decision, as the simple assumption that attitudes causes behaviour to ignores other determinants such as personality traits, self-image, motives, behaviour and the social and physical setting in which the action occurs Foxall, Consumer purchasing behaviour tends to determine what it exactly is that drives consumers when making buying decisions.

Many studies have been performed including the above mentioned with regard to consumer behaviourism. On the one hand Figure 1, depicts two inputs of consumer behaviour, namely the behaviour setting and the learning history. The learning history refers to past experiences — both positive and negative — of the consumer. On the other hand, three possible consequences of consumer behaviour are depicted in Figure 1, respectively; utilitarian reinforcement, informational reinforcement and aversive consequences.

Utilitarian reinforcement refers to the satisfaction consumers perceive when buying, owing and consuming economic goods. Of course the informational reinforcement outcome is not applicable to every product that can be bought, as one will not obtain any social status from buying nails for example, on the other hand, people are often judged by the car they drive, making cars an excellent example of the informational reinforcement.

Lastly, aversive consequences can be described as the costs of consuming; having to wait in line, not being able to buy alternative products, relinquishing money, etc.

Accumulation purchases refer to consumer behaviour related to certain kinds of collecting, saving and instalment buying. Hedonism or pleasure purchases refer to the consumption of popular entertainment. Foxall found that green consumer behaviour cannot be linked to a specific category but can be found in any of the four categories. Final causes extend outwards from the person who behaves, each fitting in the next pattern Foxall, Hence, making a sum fits into doing homework, which fits into taking the math class, which fits into studying, which in turn fits into providing yourself with a good future.

Every step cause is wider than the previous one and therefore more embracing, making each cause more final Rachlin, This implies that mental phenomena such as intentions, attitudes as well as pain are all defined as extended patterns of behaviour.

Teleological behaviourism helps to understand why consumers only consider only a few brands out of all the brands they can choose from when making a buying decision Foxall, Teleological behaviourism also helps understanding why consumers change patterns and decide to buy another brand than they usually do. It does so by acknowledging the conflict consumers can face between utilitarian reinforcement and informational reinforcement.

Both radical behaviourism and teleological behaviourism help to understand consumer behaviour, but both are not complete explanations of it, especially when it comes to breaking of patterns. Up to a certain extend teleological behaviourism provides an explanation for the breaking of patterns, as explained in the previous paragraph.

However, picoeconomics provides a much better explanation when it comes to intertemporal bargaining. How an individual prioritizes the rewards available depends on personal rules.

However, seldom such a trade-off between short-term smaller sooner and longterm larger later is isolated from other choice conflicts Foxall, Of which, as Foxall points out, directly relates to green consumer behaviour.

The benefits of the long-term choice are always greater than the benefits of the short-term choice, to make a rational decision in which the total rewards obtained is the greatest is a matter bringing imagining the long-term rewards forward in time.

When the opportunity to behave emerges the consumer has two choices, either he stays loyal to his buying pattern, or, the consumer changes his pattern based on a variable presented by the current behaviour setting. This is a typical situation where the consumer prefers a poorer pay-off which might be temporarily because it is available sooner, than a better long-term pay-off, which would be better for the consumer.

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CHAPTER -2 Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW consumers form attitudes and make decisions to purchase the product. Consumer behaviour is based on the consumer playing three different roles of buyer, payer and user. Consumer behaviour reflects totality on decision of consumers.

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